Forsøksdyr: Canine Vipera berus envenomation and novel biomarkers for kidney injury

Godkjenningsdato 30.01.2020

Godkjenningsperiode 09.03.2020-09.11.2021

We request permission to obtain blood and urine samples from dogs bitten by the European adder (V. berus) and a group of control dogs. The control dogs will consist of a subgroup of healthy dogs and a subgroup of otherwise healthy dogs presenting with minor injuries (e.g. claw fracture). Only privately-owned dogs will be recruited. We also request permission to obtain blood and urine samples from dogs in the case group 2 and 5 months after the bite incident to complete a follow up study.

The overall purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of the suspected damaging effects of V. berus venom on kidneys in naturally envenomated dogs, and to identify novel biomarkers for such effects. To obtain this the following specific aims will be addressed: 1) describe the occurrence of kidney injury caused by canine V. berus envenomation, 2) identify candidate biomarkers of kidney injury and reveal the pathomechanisms of such effects by use of metabolomics, 3) determine if acute kidney injury caused by viper envenomation might resolve or progress to cause permanent kidney injury in dogs, and 4) elucidate to what extent pain and stress affect the metabolome by dividing the control group as described.

We are seeking permission to sample a total of 120 dogs (40 envenomated cases, 40 dogs with minor injuries and 40 healthy dogs). The case group will be sampled at admission to the clinic, 24 hours post bite, at the 14-day control visit, and then at 2- and 5-months post bite for the follow up study, resulting in a total of 5 sampling events for each case. The control groups will be sampled once. Urine will be collected at the same time points as the blood sampling.

Blood samples will be taken from the jugular or cephalic vein depending on the patient’s preference, with a vacutainer and sterile needle. The sampling will be performed by an experienced veterinarian. We do not expect any major discomfort for the dogs. Urine samples will be collected from spontaneously voided urine.

Findings from this study could aid early diagnosis of acute kidney injury in both V. berus envenomated dogs and other patient groups. The results from this study will also contribute to a broader evidence base for the treatment of adder bites in dogs. The use of metabolomics in this study will increase our knowledge about the use of this technique on canine subjects, which will be valuable for future research. As metabolic pathways are often similar across species, results could be of relevance to humans.

Dogs are necessary in this study in order to investigate how the canine kidney is affected by V. berus envenomation and to find biomarkers to diagnose such effects in dogs.V. berus envenomated dogs are routinely subject to blood sampling as part of their diagnostic workup at the clinics participating in this study. Samples for this study will be taken at the same time to minimize the number of venipunctures. Any overtly nervous animals will be not be sampled.